Different whole-number types
In C++, there are at least four different basic whole-number types:
(The number of bits and the range of values for each type was gleaned from http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/tut1-2.html.)
There are both signed and unsigned variations on each of the basic types.
The four types differ primarily in terms of the range of values that they can accommodate and the amount of computer memory required to store instances of the types.