Turn and/or rotate

Turning a component part right or left rotates the part around the green axis that goes through the object's center point.

Turning the part forward or backward rotates it around the red axis.

Rolling to the right or to the left rotates it around the blue axis.

To cause a penguin to flap a wing, we must know the position of the wing object's center point.

We must also know the directions of the red, green, and blue axes that go through the center point for that wing.